Category Archives: Environment

Traffic Woes And Kochi

traffic delays

By Malathy Madathilezham

What are the uses of roads?

1. It is an obstacle course intended to test the skills?

2. It is a rain water drain?

3. Garbage disposal unit?

4. Who cares!!!!

Well the the people in charge of the maintenance/construction of road in Kochi would definitely select the fourth option I guess!! I say ‘people’ because even that is a question that I don’t have a proper answer to!!! Public Works Department? National Highways Authority of India?The Corporation??

Lot of confusion…so I am not getting into that.

I, like many other Kochiites, need to travel to reach my office every morning and come back in the evening. Now what is supposed to be a very simple 5 to 8 km distance to be covered has been made more interesting with a well designed obstacle course, with puddles or stones to be avoided, streams of water and other miscellaneous stuff to make the ride more interesting! You know in case we get bored! Whichever route you take, the road provide you ample entertainment, thrills and a very slow tour of the city for those of you tourists!

Kochi is growing. Yes, it definitely is! But good roads are substantially important for any city, growing or not! After all transport of men and material is important for any commercial activity. Accidents are just one of the hazards. Imagine after paying hefty road taxes, the long term impacts on our body by travelling on these disgracefully bumpy paths, that are supposed to be called ‘roads’! I think we should sue the authorities for the irreparable physical damage to our bodies!!!

Everyday morning, I get up, the thought of going to office scares me. It puts me off because of these dreadful paths… All I want is the right (luxury?) of being able to ride/drive to office in reasonably good roads, without having to dodge the puddles or holes, water streams etc… Is that too much to ask????

Go Green!!

By Chandan Das


You are cutting your Life , by cutting a Tree Just plant one and get air absolutely Free !

Just save a Tree, its your best Friend People have lot of issues, hug a tree..they are God-Sent !!

Take care of the trees, they are the roots of all Living In return they will take care of you , will make you feel like a King !

Save Paper , if you want to sit down under the shade Recycle it , else this world will soon fade !!

Mother Nature will be happy , if you keep the Environment clean Already our planet is crying as the snow melts, go Eco-Friendly.. don’t be so mean !

Our Green Earth isn’t disposable, it’s the only one we have and that’s not a Lie Ever thought where which side would you live, if the Abused Earth happens to Die??

Don’t waste clean water ..its priceless so conserve & care You will not get a drop to drink later, although there will be “WATER” everywhere !!

Heal our planet, embrace the eco-friendly revolution Turn this World into a better place to Live, and arrest the Pollution ! Don’t throw your future away, show appreciation for the next generation So Go Green , else your life will always be in a perpetual ” commotion ” !!




किसान-एक संवेदनशील जीवन


Abhinav Singh writes on why the farmer, who completes our lives, struggles to keep up his own.

ये कैसा जीवन,
जुबां पे सिर्फ आह है।
क्या करें पता नहीं,
क्युं नहीं मिलती कोई राह है।
बंज़र भूमि, बंज़र जीवन,
ज़िन्दगी भी तबाह है।
ये कैसा जीवन,
जुबां पे सिर्फ आह है।
क्या करें पता नहीं,
क्युं नहीं मिलती कोई राह है।
कैसे हो बच्चों की शिक्षा पुरी,
कैसे पुरी हो परिवार की अभिलाषा अधुरी।
खुद मुक्त भी नहीं होती यह जीवन,
मुक्त हो जाए तो होती हमारी चाह है।
ये कैसा जीवन,
जुबां पे सिर्फ आह है।
क्या करें पता नहीं,
क्युं नहीं मिलती कोई राह है।
कोई नेता कहीं अपनी मुर्ति बनवाए,
कोई खेलों से करोड़ों कमाए।
अश्क भी कोई समझ ले,
क्युं नहीं किसी को हमारी परवाह है।
ये कैसा जीवन,
जुबां पे सिर्फ आह है।
क्या करें पता नहीं,
क्युं नहीं मिलती कोई राह है।

The Relation Between Communication and Happiness

Communication is central to our success. It maintains and sustains relationships within a Company. The challenge is to channel the myriad communication means so that they enhance the Company’s competitiveness and bolster happiness. Read what  Sharon Andrew, Happiness Evangelist at Happiest Minds Technologies, Bangalore has to say about the relation between communication and happiness.


Communication is central to our success. It maintains and sustains relationships within a Company. The challenge is to channel the myriad communication means so that they enhance the Company’s competitiveness and bolster happiness.

Therefore, it is important to watch out for toxic communication patterns, referred to by John Gottman, psychologist at the University of Washington, as the ‘Four horsemen of the Apocalypse’.

  • Criticism – attacking the other’s actions and behaviours, conveying the I am Okay – You are not okay belief.
  • Contempt – attacking the other’s core sense of who they are: sarcasm, name-calling and hostility.
  • Defensiveness – refusing to listen to feedback received and defending our viewpoint.
  • Stonewalling – refusing to interact, not engaging in conversation, communicating via monosyllabic responses

To be the happiest person and create the happiest workplace, it is important that our communication is sustained, inclusive and transparent.

Our communication predicts our happiness.

Globalisation and the Role of the Urban -2

saskia sassen

In the second part of Globalisation and the Role of the Urban, Malathy Madathilezham will dwell on Saskia Sassen’s concept of the change in the role of the nation state and the growing importance of cities in the era of globalisation.

Saskia Sassen is a Dutch-American sociologist noted for her analyses of globalization and international human migration. She currently is Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology at Columbia University and Centennial visiting Professor at the London School of Economics. Sassen coined the term global city( .

Till very recently, in the system of cross border economic flows, the nation state was the key arbitrator in all exchanges.With the advent of neoliberal practices and globalisation, there has been a ‘rescaling’ of the territories that represent this system. Sassen sees globalisation as a differentiated phenomenon which is not quite ‘placeless’ as is claimed to be.

She talks about three different scales at which these flows can be seen to exist;

Subnational Regions: These are regions that have come up as intended outcome of policies. This can be seen in the manner cities are gaining ascendancy and considered to be pioneers in globalisation. The focus on decentralisation has greatly contributed to this.

Cross Border Regions: These are regions of enhanced flows under the shadow of policy and many exchanges here take place an unintended consequence and in stealth.

Supra National Regions: Here the importance of the nation state is subsumed and free exchange of capital is facilitated. For example free trade zones, SEZs etc. Here we can reflect also on what is the incentive that the nation state has to invest in the supra national region. In the kind of flow of capital taking place across the world, nations are in a competition to attract capital in the form of investments and supranational regions create conditions to attract the same. For developing countries like India there would also be added benefits of creation of these regions like bilateral trade, improved infrastructure and increased employment opportunities.

In this system of flows, the nation state is not the sole actor in the system which has now firms and markets involved in these processes which are enabled by new policies and international standards of the nation states themselves.

One of the main indicators of these are the growing number of cross border mergers, acquisitions and financial centres. Therefore, it can be seen that while there is huge potential for global dispersal and mobility, this system also brings about territorial concentration of resources that are required to manage the dispersal. As a result, Sassen like Brenner says that the growing number of cities are playing an important role in connecting the national economies with the global ‘circuits’. Thus with the growth of global transactions these links become stronger and pronounced in which particular cities are bound in linkages.

Thus in contrast to the earlier era when the cities were considered more as part of a nation state or region, the cities now while still part of the nation become also nodes of the flow of globalisation and address the ambitions of the nation where the nation would also be an investor. Within cities would be embedded different kinds of flows which in turn undergoes pressures due to rescaling at city level.

As cities become nodes for globalisation, there is also a creation of a hierarchy where the cities of the ‘North Atlantic System’ occupy the higher and bulk of the flows. These are regions where the headquarters of multinational organisations are situated. Thus even with the increased use of new telecommunication technologies, there is a tendency of territorial concentration of top level management functions which seem to still benefit from agglomeration economics. Sassen explains this by saying that business networks as opposed to technical networks thrive on economies of agglomeration.

Thus one of the key elements in the current global system is the simultaneous geographic dispersal and concentration of a firm’s operations. In addition, a major component of the global economy is the rise of global financial markets which have gained importance because they enable instantaneous transaction of money and information around the globe through electronic systems. It is interesting to note here that here too there is a disproportionate concentration of location of these markets in the cities of the global North.

Sassen explores the reason behind this form of territorial concentration. According to her the forms of globalization have created a specific organisational requirements like expansion of command function and increase in demand for specialized services (also referred to as corporate services complex) for the firms. The specialised functions are often outsourced to specialized firms rather than produced inhouse. It is seen that these agglomeration of specialized firms are more available in highly developed countries and particularly in ‘global’ cities. So these the availability of these strategic corporate and command function are more in the network of major global and financial markets.

Furthermore, infrastructure requirements of leading firms in information industries are also high with good facilities and capacity for global communication. These factors actually aid in territorial concentration and formation of hierarchy of cities and global cities.It is also pertinent to note about the relationship between nation, state and city in this context. According to Sassen,there is recalibration of these scales and they become embedded within the the city. For example, in the case of Mumbai, the State government of Maharashtra considers it as a source of revenue while the national government looks at Mumbai as an international financial hub and a major node of globalisation.

Sassen discusses how globalisation has got tendencies for concentration and centralising rather than dispersal and decentralisation as can be seen through empirical evidence. Her focus is on how there is the allocation of resources, development and capital are uneven globally and even within cities. She explores the reasons which are conducive or which promote such aspects in the process of globalisation. Both Sassen and Brenner are of the view that cities have become central and important in the context of globalisation.


On a Goan Forest Trail


Goa’s often known just for the beaches has tracts of equally wonderful forest lands which are unknown to most. Kartik Kannan, explores one such tract, the extremes of Harmal Village, where he got a free facepack, and an unexpected encounter with a greedy ‘baba’ who requested a laptop as Dakshina. Read on to know what happened next. 

7 am, is a time most people don’t see in Goa, and I was one of the few who got up early for a swim by one of the lakes overlooking the sea, next to our beach shack. As I wandered for a swim, I realized that the little lake meanders its way into the forest, alongside a trail that the locals use.


It was wonderful observing the foliage unravel itself from deep green to the golden color that the sun’s rays change it to.It’s an interesting forest trek that begins by the eastern end of the lake.

The path diverges beyond a point. Just like, all roads lead to Rome, both these paths lead to the Big Banyan tree, that gets your attention at one point, a few minutes into the trek.


The path has a few messages for you, if you are ‘beer-bottle’ and ‘plastics’ in hand and if you intend to dump it somewhere in the forest.

5 minutes into the trek, you are greeted by a small portion of the lake, that flows by the ‘Multani Mitti’ rock deposits. Multani mitti, better known as the Fuller’s earth is a clay substance that is hugely popular for its healing property against acne and blemishes.  It is very rich in magnesium chloride which helps to reduce acne. Originally used as an absorbent in the wool industry this ingredient is now greatly used in many skin care products. You can use it as a cleanser, toner and most importantly as multani mitti facial packs, which are very popular. It’s very pocket friendly and has no side effects either. Go natural this time to have a glowing skin. It is sweat resistant and can also be used to improve your hair condition.


The locals use this place for bathing, before some of the tourists come over later in the day.  The feeling of wetting your legs, and relaxing in the waters early in the morning, makes you refreshed with a beautiful setting, which selectively allows the sun, thereby keeping the environment pleasant. I also tried the wet clay of the Multani mitti, and turned into a yellowish-Green monster that camouflaged with the surroundings. I waited for the paste to dry on my body and then went over for a dunk in the lake, to wash myself off the clay. I believed I was glowing, but I guess that must have just been the light of enlightenment, that comes from patting myself for wandering upon such a beautiful place.


Further trekking, along the path, leads you to the Big Banyan tree, where you turn right and walk straight up to reach this little cove of serenity, where people come to meditate and observe peace. The place has a few regulars who just sit by the tree, and engage in conversations. They live life by depending on the forest for food and water, and have a community of travelers who fund their daily living. Finding this little calm paradise was one of the highlights of a morning trek that was abandoned after paradise was found.


I found a man in a loin cloth, who was smoking cannabis, to concentrate more on his prayers to Lord Shiva, and he was questioning me on my profession. Since I was clicking pictures, he said I should pay Guru Dakshina. I contributed a 100 rupee note, but the smoking yogi, would want more. He asked me for a minimum of 500 Rs or a mini laptop to communicate with his followers. I had to say NO to both, but I did say that I found his company interesting, and told him that I needed to leave. But for the Baba, I found this to be a beautiful place, un ruffled by the commercial demands of tourists and well hid from the traveler circuit.


Getting to Baba-land and Multani Mitti- Take your bike and park it at Arambol Beach’s parking centre near 21 Coconuts Inn. Ask for Baba in the mountains, the locals will point you on the path beside the lake, that takes you by the Multani Mitti point right to the Banyan tree. Let me know how much peace costs there, if the baba is still around J.

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Globalization And The Role Of The Urban- 1

dharavi_2 globalisation

Malathy Madathilezham in two parts would be discussing two authors while trying to elaborate on how the urban or the city is playing a role in the process of globalisation and aided by the neoliberal process. In the first part she discussed Brenner’s approach to this urban question.

Neil Brenner’s writing and teaching focus on the theoretical, conceptual and methodological dimensions of urban questions. His work builds upon, and seeks to extend, the fields of critical urban and regional studies, comparative geopolitical economy and radical sociospatial theory. Major research foci include processes of urban and regional restructuring and uneven spatial development; the generalization of capitalist urbanization; and processes of state spatial restructuring, with particular reference to the remaking of urban, metropolitan and regional governance configurations under contemporary neoliberalizing capitalism (

Brenner looks at globalisation with a critical perspective on neoliberalism as it is practiced in the context of globalisation and the inherent contradiction that are reflected in cities by exploring the ongoing ‘urban restructuring’ processes. His focus lies mostly on old industrialized world, the practice of neoliberalism in the urban space and the process of creative destruction. He explores the localization of this practice in urban space and how it has resulted in an urbanization of neoliberalism itself.

According to Brenner, the global imposition of the neoliberal ideology has been uneven and the forms and socio-political consequences have also varied across spatial scales and in different ‘supraregional’ zones of the world. Neoliberal ideology became the dominant political and ideological form of capital globalization by mid 80s through international organisations and institutions like World Trade Organisation, World Bank etc who had become agents of transnational neoliberalism. These organisations institutionalised and extended market forces and commodification into the so called Third world nations through a process of structural adjustment programs.

The main tenets of the neoliberal ideology are ‘minimal state intervention’, market regulation, free trade, economic redistribution, individual liberty, etc. This neoliberal doctrine is used to justify deregulation of state in major industries, reduction in taxes, privatization of public services, liberalization etc. In actual practice however, on one hand it has given rise to intensively coercive state intervention to impose the ‘rule’ of market on all aspects of social life. This can be reflected in the way property taxes laws are being revised in India where they are now dependant on property prices rather than the date of construction. Thus the state occupies a very important role in the neoliberal practice as the enabler of capital by providing subsidies and acting as an arbitrator between capital and labour. In addition, the application of corporate practice to the functioning of the state has also lead to the state becoming entrepreneurial in nature.

For example the move from housing as a welfare function to an activity which would generate revenue for the state as can be seen from a perusal of the national and state housing policies. On the other hand, instead of optimal allocation of investments and resources through self regulating markets, the political practice of neoliberalism has generated market failures, newer forms of social polarization and a greater range of uneven development across different spatial scales The removal of barriers of exit and entry of capital leads to creation of a hierarchy of places in the world where certain places are preferred for investment and exchange. These places then form a network which are generated and maintained consciously. Thus the practice of neoliberalism is rampant with contradictions to the ideology that it claims to support.

Brenner also talks about creative destruction in the practices of neoliberalism which is basically the partial or complete destruction of existing institutional arrangements and political compromises and creation of new infrastructure for market oriented economic growth, commodification and rule of capital. Cities have become strategically crucial and central to the unfolding of creative destruction in recent years. The contradictions of the practices of neoliberalism are embedded with the frame of the urban.

The interplay of capital and state activities heighten and enhance the importance of the city. The creation of new cities, inter urban areas gaining importance have been observed as part of this change. The accumulation of capital, markets and fragmentation of production brings more and more changes both in within (intra) and between (inter) cities. As a result while the scale of production goes down, the scale of consumption increases at a rapid rate which makes cities the sites of consumption. It can also be seen that accumulation of capital at both intercity and intracity levels happens in an uneven manner; with centre of accumulation or concentration of capital created due to the attractiveness to invest in certain spaces than others.

Thus according to Brenner, cities on the one hand are in a highly uncertain economic geography which is characterised by financial disorder, movement of capital in highly speculative manner, high interlocal competitiveness. On the other hand, neoliberal programs have been embedded in urban policy regimes through deregulation, privatization, etc. Here he essays how during different eras of neoliberal practice have impressed upon major cities and city regions. In the post-war growth regime and initial phase of ‘proto neoliberalism’, cities were sites of economic dislocations, social and political struggles. Thus while economic initiatives were taken in old industrial cities so as to bring economic growth, the established social, political and redistributive arrangements were maintained. Cities in the era of roll-back neoliberalism of the 80s’ were subjected to cost cutting policies of the municipal governments like privatization of infrastructure, reduction in public services to lower cost of state administration along with promotion of administrative efficiency, direct and indirect state subsidies to corporates and privatization of social reproduction functions as ‘best practices’. This not only led to increased polarisation in segments of populations but declining effectiveness with respect to economic rejuvenation.

This was followed by roll-out neoliberalism which according to Brenner can be viewed as an evolutionary reconstitution of the neoliberal practices due to its own contradictions and crisis tendencies. Thus, on one hand the dominant political project for municipalities globally was about the city space as an arena for capital growth, commodification and market discipline. On the other hand, the conditions for promotion and maintenance of economic competitiveness were reconceptualized to include diverse administrative, political and economic criteria. Brenner does not see these practices resulting in a linear transition from a model of the ‘welfare city’ towards a new model of ‘neoliberal city’.

He looks at them as contested, trial and error processes of change including neoliberal strategies that are mobilized as a response to problems afflicting advanced capitalist cities. But even these strategies sometimes aggravate problems such as economic stagnation, unemployment, etc.

Brenner argues that cities have become central to the reproduction, mutation, and continual reconstitution of neoliberalism itself during the last two decades and the urbanization of neoliberalism has been occurring during this period. The cities have become strategic targets for broad range of neoliberal experiments, institutional innovations and political and ideological projects through which the global dominance of neoliberalism is maintained.

Global and Urban

Clean Development Mechanism in the Building Sector

cdmpage cover

Malathy Madathilezham writes that there would be significant local, economic and sustainable development benefits to India with an effective implementation of Clean Development Mechanism

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the four flexibility mechanisms that can be utilized by the industrialized nations under the Kyoto Protocol. Under the clean development mechanism (CDM) adopted in 2001, private players and governments from developing countries can earn carbon credits by adopting environment-friendly practices like growing trees on degraded land or adoption of cleaner energy sources like hydroelectricity.

These carbon credits can then be sold to polluters in developed countries to help them meet their targets of emission cut. This race to earn carbon credits has resulted in the rise of artificial forests with fast-growing varieties of trees. Such trees, however, are only good for storing carbon. This is basically to encourage the participation of the developing nations in emission reduction process and is often touted as the only link between Kyoto protocol and of the developing countries’ willingness to participate in a future global emissions regime. The problem with the approach of transferring CERs based on CDM projects is that the aspect of sustainable development has been trivialised and the major focus is on the reduction of emissions.

In the Seventh Conference of Parties (COP-7) to the UNFCCC it was decided that a National Authority for CDM should be designated by the participating Parties and a written approval of voluntary participation from the Designated National Authority should be included in the project proposal confirming that the project activity would help the host country in achieving sustainable development. In accordance to this the National Clean Development Authority was constituted.

Clean Development Mechanism and the Building Sector

More than one-third of the total energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, both in developed and developing countries can be traced to buildings and most of it is during its use for heating, cooling, lighting, ventilation etc. Materials manufacturing, construction etc consumes a much smaller percentage. There is a great potential and need to reduce energy consumption in buildings.

According to the fourth report of the International Panel on Climate Change, the building sector not only has the largest potential for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but also that this potential is relatively independent of the cost per ton of CO achieved. This is because of the fact that the increase in investment costs is offset by reduced energy costs over time which is a result of the measures aimed at reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

But the fact remains that this potential remains mostly untapped in most countries. Only six of the 3000 CDM projects in the pipeline seek to reduce energy demand in the buildings. Out of these six, only one is generating Certified Emission Reduction Credits (CERs). Thus even though this sector is identified as offering the greatest potential for GHG emission reduction, CDM is not having much of an impact here.

The Indian Scenario

In terms of energy demand, India stands sixth in the world and accounts of 3.5 % of the world’s commercial energy demand in 2001. In spite of this the annual per capita consumption of energy is low compared to other developing countries. In the last five decades, there has been an increase in the total energy use along with a shift from non commercial to commercial sources of energy.

It can be observed that the building sector plays an important role in the increase of energy use mentioned above. About 11% of the world’s energy consumption in residential sector can be accounted to India.

The Union Government of India along with many international agencies has taken steps towards efficient and optimized energy utilization and simultaneously employed various means to check financial as well as environmental losses due to wastage of energy. But most measures bypassed the building sector till CDM came to be proposed. Using marginal costs of abatement in different countries to estimate the flow of CDM funds it is estimated that India would collect between 7%-12% of the total global market for CDM-led investment (Jotzo and Michaelowa 2002)

SWOT analysis of CDM in Building Sector


  1. It can be seen that CDM is a good complementary mechanism for financing EEB projects mainly in the following ways

a) Reducing various financial risks inherent in EEB projects;

b) Making life cycle-based financing more acceptable to investors;

  1. Providing complementary financing to offset increased investment and transaction costs
  2. The project based approach of CDM provides a good platform to promote energy efficiency in the building sector
  3. The rules and procedures of CDM contain measures aimed at ensuring “real,measurable and verifiable” emission reductions (COP 1, Decision 5).
  4. The flexibility to allow ‘bundling’ of several small projects (which are located close to each other and implemented at the same time) helps to reduce CDM related transaction costs to small projects.


  1. The CDM was created for two purposes: to   combat climate change through GHG emission reductions and to support sustainable development in developing countries. In its current form, the CDM only assigns monetary value to GHG emission reductions, and not to project contributions towards sustainable development. The CDM has been heavily criticized for not sufficiently fulfilling its sustainable development mandate, which is one of its most challenging tasks (Schneider, 2007)


  1. With the buzzword of sustainability becoming increasingly popular and the importance of an environment friendly brand image, CDM project approvals are of added value and are especially attractive to business stakeholders, including builders, owners, tenants, and even banks.
  2. The relationship between CDM and policy implementation of the government which complement each other in various terms

Threats / Challenges

  1. There are characteristics of the building sector which make the managing of the projects comparatively difficult and costly. These include small savings per technology improvement, large numbers of buildings, widespread locations, many technologies used to achieve efficiency improvements, various specifications for dispersed end use requirements, varying end-user knowledge levels and decentralized energy use decision making.
  2. Fragmentation and complexity of the construction sector
  3. Risks – Business risks and perceived risks
  4. Diverse Stakeholder interests
  5. Lack of Information, misinformation or asymmetrical information
  6. Lack of experts
  7. Costs
  1. Investment and Transaction
  2. Management


There would be definitely be significant local, economic and sustainable development benefits to India with an effective implementation of CDM. There should be increased cooperation with potential investors and stakeholders (both public and private). Also the issues of risk management and project financing should be addressed by establishing adequate facilities for the same. This could take the form of a national CDM fund that supports the development of good-quality and relevant CDM projects.

cleandevelopmentmechanism end